Trees at the FWG 2019-05-08T11:52:26+00:00

by Gordon Robertson

Trees are defined as a perennial plant with a long woody stem, usually called a trunk, that supports branches that in turn support smaller branches holding leaves or needles. In their maturity, trees usually reach heights exceeding six metres. Shrubs, on the other hand, are smaller than trees and may have multiple stems. Some plants can be placed in either category such as the Staghorn Sumac.

Trees can be either deciduous or coniferous. Deciduous trees are noted for seasonally shedding their leaves, but also flowers and ripe fruit, usually in autumn. Coniferous trees or conifers differ because they propagate by cones whereas deciduous trees propogate by runners, fruit, acorns, or keys (samaras). Many conifers are evergreens, meaning they stay green all year but some such as the Tamarack, or Larch, does not.

* Indicates non-native species

Ashes, Olives, Lilacs etc.  (Oleaceae)


Black Ash

Fraxinus nigra

Frêne noir

Family: Olive (Oleaceae)
Native to: Eastern Canada and US
Location at the FWG: north Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: Up to 20 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: leaves are food for many type of moths and swallowtail butterflies

Notes: Critically endangered due to Emerald Ash Borers. Leaflets (5 to 9) are sessile (i.e., directly attached to the rachis without a petiolule). Buds look like chocolate chips.


Green Ash / Red Ash

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Frêne rouge / Frêne rouge de Pennsylvanie

Family: Olive (Oleaceae)
Native to: Central and eastern Canada and central, eastern, and southern US
Location at the FWG: north Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 12 to 25 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: leaves are food for many type of moths and swallowtail butterflies

Notes: Critically endangered due to Emerald Ash Borers. Leaflets (5 to 11) have short petiolules and serrated edges. D-shaped leaf scars.

Green Ash


White Ash / American Ash

Fraxinus americana

Frêne blanc / Frêne d’Amérique / Franc Frêne

Family: Olive (Oleaceae)
Native to: Eastern Canada and southern US
Location at the FWG: north Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: Up to 30 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: leaves are food for many type of moths and swallowtail butterflies

Notes: Critically endangered due to Emerald Ash Borers. Leaflets (mostly 7) have short petiolules and smooth edges. C-shaped leaf scars.

Birches (Betulaceae)


Paper Birch / White Birch / Canoe Birch

Betula papyrifera

Bouleau à papier

Family: Birch (Betulaceae)
Native to: northern North America
Location at the FWG: Old woodlot
Type: tree
Height: to 40 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Mixed or deciduous woods

Wildlife use:

Notes: Famous for canoe making, bark excellent as fire starter

Paper Birch


Hop Hornbeam / Ironwood

Ostrya virginiana

Family: Birch (Betulaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: AW
Type: tree
Height: 8-12 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Mixed or deciduous woods

Wildlife use: “One of the very few woody plants avoided by herbivores” Kock (2008). Host plant for several moths.

Notes:

Hop Hornbeam. Photo Eric Hunt


American Hornbeam / Blue-beech / Musclewood

Carpinus caroliniana

Charme de Caroline

Family: Birch (Betulaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Old Woods
Type: tree
Height: 10 to 15 m
Light requirements: Shade loving
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moderate soil fertility and moisture
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Mixed or deciduous woods

Wildlife use: leaves are eaten by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, for example the Io moth(Automeris io).

Notes: Wood is heavy and hard, and is used for tool handles, longbows, walking sticks, walking canes, and golf clubs.

Cedars, Cypresses, Junipers, & Redwoods (Cupressaceae)


Eastern White Cedar / Northern White-cedar

Thuja occidentalis

Cèdre blanc du Canada ou Thuya du Canada

Family: Cypress (Cupressaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; north of Old Woodlot; Evergreen Woods
Type: tree
Height: Up to 5 m (15′)
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral; tolerates acidic and alkaline soils

Natural habitat: Swampy areas and other places where soil is shallow, especially over flat limestone

Wildlife use: Good cover for wildlife and nesting sites for birds. Buds and seeds eaten by Common Redpoll and Pine Siskin. Seeds also eaten by red and grey squirrels.

Notes: Small tree. Easy to grow. Slow to moderate growth rate. Common hedge tree; can be sheared to maintain shape and size. Easily transplanted from containers; generally quite adaptable and tolerant once established. Dense fibrous root system good for stabilizing banks, especially along streams and rivers.

Eastern White Cedar


Red Cedar / Red Juniper

Juniperus virginiana

Genévrier de Virginie

Family: Cypress (Cupressaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; north of Old Woodlot; Evergreen Woods
Type: tree
Height: 5–20 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral; creates acidic soil

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Red Cedar

Firs, Larches, Pines, and Spruces (Pinaceae)

Firs


Balsam Fir

Abies balsamea

Sapin baumier

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: eastern North America
Location at the FWG: Evergreen Woods, Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 14 to 20 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral
Cones: 4-8 cm

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: Seeds are food for Pine Squirrels, chickadees, crossbills, larvae of Io moth, and  eastern spruce budworm

Notes:

Balsam Fir

Larches


American Larch / Tamarack

Laric laricina

Mélèze laricin / mélèze d’Amérique

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: North America
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: to 60 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil:  Tolerate a wide range of soil conditions but grow most commonly in swamps, bogs, or muskeg in wet to moist organic soils such as sphagnum peat and woody peat.
pH: Neutral
Cones: 1.3 to 2 cm

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: Seeds are food for Pine Squirrels, White-throated Sparrows, Song Sparrows, Veerys, Common Yellow throats, and Nashville Warblers.

Notes: A conifer that is deciduous, losing its needles in winter.

Tamarack

Pines


(Eastern) White Pine

Picea strobus

Pin blanc / pin du Lord

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: eastern North America
Location at the FWG: Evergreen Woods, Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: to 70 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral
Cones: 8–16 cm

Natural habitat: climax canopy tree in boreal forests

Wildlife use: Seeds are food for Pine Squirrels, predated by Spruce Beetles and Spruce Budworm

Notes: 5 needles per fascicle

Eastern White Pine


Scots Pine*

Pinus sylvestris

Pin sylvestre

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: northern Europe and Asia
Location at the FWG: western border OW
Type: tree
Height: to 35 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: 
pH:
Cones: 3–7.5 cm

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes: bark is an orange-red, 2 needles per fascicle

Scots Pine


Ponderosa Pine*

Pinus ponderosa

Pin ponderosa

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: west coast of North America
Location at the FWG: one only near northern border OW. near Lock Station
Type: tree
Height: to 70 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: 
pH:
Cones: 6.5–7.5 cm

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes: Three needles per fascicle.

Ponderosa Pine


Mugo Pine / Mountain Pine*

Pinus mogo

Pin mugo / Pin mugho / Pin couché / Pin de montagnes

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: Eurasia
Location at the FWG: only one in grove on western border of Old Field
Type: tree
Height: to 20 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: 
pH:
Cones: 2.5–5.5 cm

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes: Two needles per fascicle.

Spruces


White Spruce

Picea glauca

Épinette blanche

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: boreal North America
Location at the FWG: EW
Type: tree
Height: 15 to 30 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral
Cones: 3 to 7 cm

Natural habitat: climax canopy tree in boreal forests

Wildlife use: Seeds are food for Pine Squirrels, predated by Spruce Beetles and Spruce Budworm

Notes:

White Spruce


Black Spruce

Picea mariana

Épinette noire / épicéa noir / sapinette noire

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: boreal North America
Location at the FWG: EW, near red barn
Type: tree
Height: 5 to 15 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, peaty soil
pH: Acidic
Cones: 1.5–4 cm

Natural habitat: climax canopy tree in boreal forests

Wildlife use: Seeds are food for Pine Squirrels

Notes: Black spruce is the provincial tree of Newfoundland and Labrador

Black Spruce


Norway Spruce*

Picea abies

Épicéa commun

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: northern and central Europe
Location at the FWG: near Butterfly Meadow
Type: tree
Height: 35–55 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, does not do well on dry or deficient soils
pH: Tolerates acidic soil
Cones: 9–17 cm

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes: main Christmas tree in several cities around the world

Norway Spruce


Blue Spruce / Colorado Spruce / Green Spruce*

Picea pungens

Épicéa bleu /  épinette bleue / épicéa bleu du Colorado

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Native to: Rocky Mountains of the United States
Location at the FWG: BYG
Type: tree
Height: 10–15 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil:
pH:
Cones: 9–10 cm

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use:

Notes: State tree of Colorado

Blue Spruce

Hackberries, Hops, & Cannabis (Cannabaceae)


(Common) Hackberry

Celtis occidentalis

Micocoulier occidental

Family: Hackberries, Hops, & Cannabis (Cannabaceae)
Native to: Southern Ontario, central and eastern USA
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot and Evergreen Woods
Type: tree
Height: to 15 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: rich and moist
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Mixed or deciduous woods

Wildlife use: Needed by Hackberry Emperor butterflies.

Notes: 

Hackberry

Beans, Legumes, Locusts, and Peas (Fabaceae)


Black Locust*

Robinia pseudoacacia

Robinier faux-acacia

Family: Legume (Fabaceae)
Native to: southeastern United States
Location at the FWG: Backyard Garden; east side of Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: Up to 12-30 m
Light requirements: Full sun. Does not grow in shade.
Moisture requirements: Dry
Soil:
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: .

Wildlife use: Seeds suitable for small mammals forage

Notes: Produces long dark brown pods

Black Locust

Magnolias (Magnoliaceae)


(American) Tulip Tree

Liriodendron tulifera

Cerisier à grappes

Family: Magnolias (Magnoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern North America
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Flower colour: White
Type: tree
Blooming time: Spring
Height: to 50 m
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Riverbanks, roadside, edges of woods and swamps. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Tulip Tree


Kobus Magnolia*

Magnolia kobus

Magnolia de Kobé

Family: Magnolia (Magnoliaceae)
Native to: Eastern Asia
Location at the FWG: Western side Butterfly meadow
Flower colour: White
Type: tree
Blooming time: Spring
Height: to 15 m
Light requirements: Sun
Moisture requirements: Average to moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Seeds grouped together in a yellow to pod.

Wildlife use:

Notes:

Kobus Magnolia

Maples (Sapindaceae)


Silver Maple

Acer saccharinum

Érable argenté / Érable de Virginie

Family: Maple (Sapindaceae)
Native to: Eastern and central North America
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 15–25 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Any type of soil except sand
pH: Neutral; non-acidic soils

Natural habitat: Open woods

Wildlife use: Maple keys are eaten by mice and squirrels

Notes: Produces sweet sap. Native Americans used the sap of wild trees to make sugar, as medicine, and in bread.

Silver Maple


Red Maple / Swamp Maple / Soft Maple / Water Maple

Acer rubrum

Érable rouge / Érable de Virginie

Family: Maple (Sapindaceae)
Native to: Eastern and central North America
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 18–27 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Wide rage including swams and dry soils
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: River sides

Wildlife use: Maple keys are eaten by mice and squirrels

Notes: As the name suggests the leaves turn rad in autumn

Red Maple


Sugar Maple / Rock Maple

Acer saccharum

Érable à sucre / érable franc

Family: Maple (Sapindaceae)
Native to: Eastern Canada and north eastern USA
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 25–35 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Any type of soil except sand
pH: Neutral; non-acidic soils

Natural habitat: Open woods

Wildlife use: Maple keys are eaten by mice and squirrels

Notes: Produces sweet sap, wood has many applications including flooring, baseball bats, furniture, etc.

Sugar Maple


Black Maple

Acer nigrum

Érable noir

Family: Maple (Sapindaceae)
Native to: Central and eastern Canada and midwestern USA
Location at the FWG: north Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 21–34 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Any type of soil except sand
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods

Wildlife use: Maple keys are eaten by mice and squirrels

Notes: Produces sweet sap. Closely related to the Sugar Maple.

Black Maple


Amur Maple*

Acer ginnala

Érable de l’Amour

Family: Maple (Sapindaceae)
Native to: northeastern Asia
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 3–10 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements:
Soil: Any type of soil except sand
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods

Wildlife use: Maple keys are eaten by mice and squirrels

Notes: Keys are red unlike other native maples

Amur Maple


Manitoba Maple / Boxelder Maple*

Acer negundo

Érable negundo / érable négondo

Family: Maple (Sapindaceae)
Native to: Central North America
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 10–25 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements:
Soil: Any type of soil except sand
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods

Wildlife use: Maple keys are eaten by mice and squirrels

Notes:

Manitoba Maple


Norway Maple*

Acer platanoides

Érable plain/ érable de Norvège

Family: Maple (Sapindaceae)
Native to: Central North America
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 20–30 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements:
Soil: Any type of soil except sand
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Open woods

Wildlife use: Maple keys are eaten by mice and squirrels. Often confused wit Sugar Maple. Differentiate by clear sap in the petiole (leaf stem); Norway maple petioles have white sap. The tips of the points on Norway maple leaves reduce to a fine “hair”, while the tips of the points on sugar maple leaves are rounded.

Notes:

Norway Maple

Roses (Rosaceae)


(Wild or Mountain) Black Cherry

Prunus serotina

Cerisier tardif

Family: Rose (Rosaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot, Backyard Garden
Type: tree
Height: 22 m at maturity
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Grows well on a variety of soils. Common in the Ottawa region.

Wildlife use: Many species of birds are attracted to the fruit. Larval food source for Canadian Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio canadensis), Striped Hairstreak (Satyrium liparops), Spring Azure (Celastrina ladon).

Notes: Medium-sized tree; fast-growing when young. Trunk sinuous; branches arching with drooping tips; root system shallow, wide-spreading. High salt tolerance but low pollution tolerance.

White flowers; attractive, shiny dark green leaves; dark reddish black cherries are stringent but edible. Drought tolerant. Excellent as individual planting for home landscaping, parks, schools, natural areas. Good addition to windbreaks.

Black Cherry

Rues and Citruses (Rutaceae)


Amur Cork Tree*

Phellodendron amurense

Arbre au liège de l’Amour

Family: Citruses (Rutaceae)
Native to: Eastern Asia
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot, Ravine
Type: tree
Height: 25 m at maturity
Light requirements: Sun to partial shade
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil:
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Grows well on a variety of soils.

Wildlife use: Invasive. Used in Chinese herbal medicines.

Amur Cork Tree bark

Oaks & Beeches (Fagaceae)


(Northern) Red Oak

Quercus rubra

Chêne rouge d’Amérique

Family: Oak (Fagaceae)
Native to: Eastern Canada and US
Location at the FWG: north Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: Up to 28 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral; tolerates acidic and alkaline soils

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: acorns are eaten by squirrels

Notes:

Red Oak


Bur Oak

Quercus macrocarpa

Chêne à gros fruits

Family: Oak (Fagaceae)
Native to: central Canada and US
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: Up to 30 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral; tolerates acidic and alkaline soils

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: acorns are eaten by squirrels

Notes:

Bur Oak


White Oak

Quercus alba

Chêne blanc / Chêne blanc d’Amérique

Family: Oak (Fagaceae)
Native to: eastern Canada and US
Location at the FWG: Old Woodlot
Type: tree
Height: 24 to 30 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Moist
Soil: Moist, loamy soil
pH: Neutral; tolerates acidic and alkaline soils

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: acorns are eaten by squirrels

Notes:

White Oak


English Oak / Common Oak / European Oak*

Quercus robor

Chêne pédonculé

Family: Oak (Fagaceae)
Native to: Europe
Location at the FWG: near parking lot
Type: tree
Height: To 20 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average moisture
Soil: Tolerasnt, prefers fertile and well-watered soils
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: acorns are eaten by squirrels

Notes: Acorns are 2 – 2.5 cm. Can have very large trunk circumference. Long lived.

English Oak


American Beech

Fagus grandifolia

Hêtre à grandes feuilles, Hêtre américain

Family: Oak (Fagaceae)
Native to: Eastern North America
Location at the FWG: Old Woods
Type: tree
Height: 20 to 35 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Average moisture
Soil: favours a well watered, but also well drained soil but is intolerant of urban pollution, salt, and soil compaction
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Forests

Wildlife use: Beech nuts are eaten by squirrels and rabbits.

Notes: Beech nuts were one of the primary foods of the now-extinct passenger pigeon.

American Beech

Walnuts & Hickories (Juglandaceae)


Black Walnut

Juglans nigra

Noyer d’Amérique ou Noyer noir

Family: Walnut (Juglandaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: throughout garden
Type: tree
Height: to 30 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Well drained
Soil: Rich soil
pH: Neutral; tolerates acidic and alkaline soils

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: Food for squirrels

Notes: Tall spreading tree. Produces a natural phytotoxin called juglone in its roots, leaves, fruit, hulls, and bark, a substance that inhibits the growth of other plants. Leaves are opposite but last single leaf often missing unlike Butternut. Nuts are spherical.

Black Walnut


Butternut/ White Walnut

Juglans cinerea

Noyer cendré

Family: Walnut (Juglandaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: throughout garden
Type: tree
Height: to 20 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Well drained
Soil: Rich soil
pH: Neutral; tolerates acidic and alkaline soils

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: Food for squirrels

Notes: Produces a natural phytotoxin called juglone in its roots, leaves, fruit, hulls, and bark, a substance that inhibits the growth of other plants. Leaves are opposite but has a last single leaf often missing in the Black Walnut. Nuts ovoid instead of spherical. Endangered by Butternut Canker.

Butternut


Shagbark Hickory

Carya ovata

Caryer ovale / Carya blanc / Noyer blanc / Noyer tendre

Family: Walnut (Juglandaceae)
Native to: Eastern Ontario
Location at the FWG: north of Butterfly Meadow
Type: tree
Height: 20 to 30 m
Light requirements: Sun to part shade
Moisture requirements: Well drained
Soil: Rich soil
pH: Neutral; tolerates acidic and alkaline soils

Natural habitat:

Wildlife use: Food for squirrels

Notes:

Shagbark Hickory

Willows, Poplars, Aspens, & Cottonwoods (Salicaceae)


Trembling Aspen

Populus tremuloides

Peuplier faux-tremble

Family: Willows (Salicaceae)
Native to: Across Canada and northern USA
Location at the FWG: Evergreen Woods
Type: tree
Height: to 25 m
Light requirements: Shade tolerant
Moisture requirements: Average
Soil: rich and moist
pH: Neutral

Natural habitat: Mixed or deciduous woods

Wildlife use:

Notes: Fast growing, leaves move easily in a breeze. Forms clonal colonies.

Trembling Aspen

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This page was revised on 8 May 2019
Photos by D. Gordon E. Robertson
© Fletcher Wildlife Garden
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