Willow Pinecone Gall
These galls, which look like small pine cones on willow trees, are made by the larva of a small mosquito-like midge (Rhabdophaga strobiloides). The larva contains a powerful growth substance that it releases to prevent the willow stem from elongating and causes the leaves to mature into what look like the scales on a cone.The larva lives in a small chamber in the centre of the gall. After eating the cells on the inside of the gall and the gall is full size, it hibernates for the winter. In spring when the temperature rises, it metamorphose into a gnat.
Hackberry Leaf Gall
These galls, which resemble pale green peas attached to the underside of Hackberry leaves, are caused by tiny insects known as psyllids. There may be several on one leaf.
Adult psyllids are tiny and look like miniature cicadas. In early spring, they lay eggs in leaf buds of Hackberry trees. In 7-10 days, the eggs hatch into tiny nymphs that begin to feed on the leaves. This stimulates the tree to produce bead-like galls in which the nymph lives and feeds for the rest of the summer. They pupate in the fall and adults emerge in September.
Infested Hackberry trees are not harmed by the galls, although leaves with many galls may fall prematurely.